Previous blog post summarising Pidgins/Creoles here.
Previous blog post about Pidgins here.
EMERGENCE SCENARIOS OF CREOLES:
- Through monogenisis: an ancestor pidgin.
Creoles are stable natural languages, that are developed from the mixing of parent languages (usually a pidgin).
Creoles are believed to have been nativised by children as their primary language, with the result that they become a stable language.
Since most creole languages developed in the colonies they are typically based on English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish, the languages of the superpowers of the time. However, there are also numerous creoles based on other languages such as Arabic, Hindi, and Malay.
Decreolisation: this occurs when speakers may feel compelled to conform their speech to one of the parent languages.
FT: Foreigner talk - this hypothesis argues that a pidgin or creole language forms when natives attempt to simplify their language in order to address speakers who do not know their language at all.
Hawaiian Creole English: The Lord’s prayer:
Features of Creoles:
- Development of derivational morphology:
Example: Sranan: taki = speak
taki- man = speaker
Tok Pisin: bik-pela bisnisman = big businessman
sam-pela = some patients
2. Development of tense aspect system:
mi njan fisi mi bi-njan fisi
I eat fish I PAST MARKER.ate fish
mi o-njan fisi
I FUTURE MARKER.will/might eat fish
McWhorter generalised pidgins/creoles as “young, simple, languages”.
- He argued this because of the absence of inflectional morphology.
- Absence of tone.
- Absence of non-compositional derivational morphology.